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Precisely because Jesus Christ fulfilled what the OT predicted, His life and deeds were demonstrated to be the work of God and thus invested with absolute finality. The OT demonstrated that Christ and His Church were of supernatural origin and validity, and entirely set apart from man-made religion or human genius of any sort. Scriptures constituted an organic unity, focused upon a single great theme and setting forth a single, but all-comprehensive, program of redemption. The books composing the authoritative OT were unquestionably the same as the thirty-nine transmitted in the Heb.
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There is no evidence whatever that the NT authors regarded any of the books in the Apoc. The prophets are subdivided into the former prophets including Josh. Bible with Apocryphal additions or books interspersed among them , namely: books of law Gen through Deut , books of history Josh through Esth , books of poetry and wisdom Job through S of Sol , books of prophecy the twelve minor prophets, and the major prophets, Isa.
The LXX appends 1 and 2 Maccabees at the very end. This would seem to have been the approved order, then, in the Alexandrian Jewish community during the intertestamental period; the Palestinian order during this same time is less certain, although from the evidence cited above, it was somewhat different from the final Massoretic order. Regardless of these minor variations in sequence, the organic function of each section of the OT canon in relationship to the other sections is perfectly clear. This covenant relationship was later extended to Israel as a nation, delivered from bondage in Egypt, commissioned to take possession of Canaan as the inheritance promised to Abraham.
Theirs was the responsibility of maintaining a holy, virtuous life, based upon obedience to the revealed will of God, and maintained by worship, sacrifice for sins, and grateful, loving communion with their divine Sovereign. The historical books Josh through Esth contain the record of how the nation prospered when it kept faith with God and maintained its covenant commitments, and how it suffered affliction and defeat when it forsook its trust and tried to live like the pagan world around it. Through these prophets runs the theme of ultimate deliverance, not by the efforts of the people themselves, but by the atoning work of a divine-human Messiah, who is the hope of Israel.
The Gospel of Matthew (part 1) - An Exposition :: Arno Clemens Gaebelein
In a very profound sense, the entire OT, in all its parts and divisions, points to Jesus Christ. The law and the books of wisdom present Him as the perfect man and blameless Priest who fulfills all righteousness and loves God with pure sincerity. The historical books set forth through David and those of his descendants who were godly, the pattern of the theocratic King, who subdues and rules the earth for the glory of God. The poetical books esp. The prophetic books present Him as the Teacher of all righteousness and truth, and the tender Shepherd who devotedly cares for His flock.
From this perspective, the OT not only contains individual predictions concerning the person and work of Christ, but also focuses upon Him as its basic pattern, motivation, and glorious goal. It is this essentially Christocentric quality of the OT that is brought out and emphasized in the NT itself—an emphasis that its authors received from their divine Lord during His earthly ministry, both before and after His resurrection.
Genesis sets forth Yahweh as the only true God, the creator of the entire universe, in sovereign control of all the forces of nature. Man is His crowning work of creation, for he alone was made in the image of God and granted the privilege of personal fellowship with Him. His son Isaac, whose wife was chosen for him by the Lord, handed on this heritage to Jacob, that crafty self-server who ultimately was won by hardship and danger to true submission to God. His twelve sons, despite their grievous sins and faults, maintained an awareness of belonging to Yahweh under the covenant of grace made with Abraham and his seed.
It is preeminently in Joseph that true godliness again finds expression; through successive testings God prepared him for greatness and used him to deliver his family from extinction and welcome them into a refuge in Egypt where they could grow into a great nation. The second book relates how God prepared His servant Moses for the task of leading Israel out of oppressive bondage in Egypt.
After forty years of education in the Egyp. After the ten plagues compelled Pharaoh to let the Israelites depart, Pharaoh made an attempt to recapture them, but lost his chariotry in the sea. By manna from heaven and water from the rock, God sustained the multitude, and He met with them as a nation for solemn covenant renewal at Mt. Sinai where He gave the Decalogue, the Book of the Covenant , and the specifications for the Tabernacle and its priesthood. After the rupture caused by the apostasy of the golden calf, Moses prevailed on Yahweh to renew fellowship with a chastened Israel.
God then warned against future idolatry, ordained the Sabbath observances and the consecration of the Tabernacle with its altars and ark, and at the dedication ceremony descended upon it with the glory cloud. Leviticus spells out the regulations that governed the meal offering and the six types of blood sacrifice, each of which brought out an aspect of the atonement: burnt offering for sinfulness in general , sin offering for individual overt transgressions , trespass offering for offenses resulting in damages to be repaid percent , and peace offerings thank-offering, votive offering, freewill offering that involved a communion meal with God.
After Aaron and his sons were solemnly consecrated for the priesthood, the two oldest Nadab and Abihu died because of impiety in the Tabernacle.
Lists of clean and unclean foods, and laws concerning purification of mothers after childbirth, of lepers who have been cured, of victims of boils or running sores are followed by regulations for the Day of Atonement and for preserving the sanctity of sacrifices. Holiness involved complete separation from all levels of sexual immorality, uncleanness, and idolatry. Only holy men could carry out priestly duties and supervise the holy convocations, the celebration of the Sabbath, of Passover and Unleavened Bread , of Pentecost, the Feasts of Trumpets and of Tabernacles.
Following the warnings against desecration, are the ordinances for the sabbatical year and the year of Jubilee. Chapter 26 foretells the Babylonian captivity although not by name and the return to Pal. The fourth book continues with the journey of Israel from Sinai to the borders of Canaan at Kadesh-barnea, and then after the chastisement of the forty years wandering, the arrival at the Plains of Moab and the encounter with King Balak and the prophet Balaam who was hired to curse Israel but was compelled by God to bless them instead.
There was a census at the beginning chs. After the twelve tribes dedicated offerings to the Lord, the Levites were officially installed, and the host headed toward Kadesh. From time to time they complained and rebelled, esp. Aaron and Miriam rebelled against Moses, as did some of the Levites under Korah. All were subdued by miraculous judgments from God. Various laws concerning holiness are interspersed.
The conquest of Trans-Jordan was secured by the defeat of Sihon and Og, but in Moab the Israelites were temporarily ensnared by idolatry and religious prostitution, which was followed by a plague and the execution of some of the leading offenders. The fifth book contains the closing admonitions of the aged Moses, on the threshold of conquest of the Promised Land.
This earnest admonition to the nation as a whole to keep true to its divine trust was in the nature of a constitution for the new theocracy to be established in conquered Canaan. The Book of Joshua records the conquest of the Promised Land, and the fulfillment of the promises to Abraham and Moses in effecting victory over the tribes of Canaan. The law was publicly read and its covenant engagements solemnly accepted by the victorious army up by Mt.
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In support of their unsought allies of the Hivite League, the Israelites won a tremendous victory over a hostile coalition at the battle of Gibeon, during which great numbers of the foe were killed by huge hailstones, and the sun was retarded from setting so that the victors could catch their fugitives before nightfall. After an equally victorious campaign in the N against Hazor, Joshua distributed the territory of Pal. Within them the cities of refuge were appointed for fugitive manslayers, and also cities for the Levites to dwell in.
At the close of his career Joshua challenged the nation to renew its exclusive loyalty to Yahweh. The Book of Judges picks up the narrative at that point, relating how later generations failed to complete the conquest of the land, and after falling into moral laxity and idolatry became prey to six or more oppressing nations, beginning with Cushanrishathaim from Syrian Mesopotamia, then Moab, then the North Canaanites under Jabin of Hazor, then the Midianites, the Ammonites, and the Philistines.
Despite periods of repentance and revival, the general trend among the twelve tribes in this period was to do whatever was pleasing in their own eyes and ignore the Scriptures i. In contrast to these troubles, the Book of Ruth narrates a tender and romantic episode during the time of the Judges when a Moabitess loyally moved to Bethlehem with her destitute Judean mother-in-law, Naomi, to help support her there. Attracting the favor of a wealthy bachelor named Boaz, a cousin of Naomi, she is eventually claimed by him as her kinsman-redeemer, and becomes the ancestress of King David.
After the Philistines crushed Israel at Shiloh and carried off the Ark of the covenant as spoil, they were compelled by a plague to return it to the Hebrews. Saul valiantly delivered Jabesh-gilead from the besieging Ammonites, and sparked by a daring raid on the part of his son Jonathan, routed the Philistines as well. But the challenge of the Philistine giant, Goliath, could only be met by the daring young David, who vaulted into prominence by felling him with a slingstone. Gilboa, where he and his sons fell in battle.
He finally conquered all the territory from Egypt to the Euphrates, as God promised Abraham Gen David was restored to supreme power, a saddened man, and had to deal with a major famine, and further wars with the Philistines all of whose giants were slain.
His psalm of praise is recorded in ch. Ps 18 , which was followed by a list of his thirty battle champions. His national census was punished by a plague, which stopped only when he offered sacrifice on the site of the future Temple, purchased from Araunah the Jebusite.
This narrative continues the history of the Heb. His wealth and glory amazed the Queen of Sheba , and science and lit. But his gross polygamy and toleration of the cults of his foreign wives led the nation to spiritual decline and political unrest. Intermittent warfare between the two kingdoms was matched by religious schism, for Jeroboam established new temples for calf worship at Bethel and Dan.
When Baasha threatened Judah by building a new fortress at Ramah, Asa though a godly king resorted to bribing Damascus to fall upon the northern tribes. Later, the capital of the northern kingdom was transferred to Samaria by Omri, whose son Ahab was married to Baal-worshiping Jezebel of Tyre. Carmel, after which the rains returned.
Sinai, where he received new directions from God. Elisha was anointed by Elijah, and stayed with him until his departure heavenward by the Jordan.
Elisha assisted Jehoram against Syrian invaders, after healing Naaman of his leprosy during a time of peace with Damascus. Jehu, commander of the Israelite army was secretly anointed king by a messenger of Elisha, at Ramoth-gilead. Jehu then secured the support of the army and slew Jehoram at Jezreel, and shortly afterward the defiant Jezebel also.
FOUNDATIONAL FRAMEWORK. PART 19
His son, Jeroboam II , regained the former boundaries of N Israel and subdued Damascus, but anarchy and a series of weak kings ensued after his death, until the final collapse of Samaria to Assyrian besiegers in Uzziah of Judah, a godly king, restored the borders of the southern kingdom and prospered economically until his arrogance in the Temple led to leprosy and the shift of power to his good son, Jotham b. After Gedaliah, the Babylonian-appointed governor of Judah, was murdered by a guerilla leader named Ishmael, the last remnants of Jewish population took refuge in Egypt.
The northern kingdom is treated only incidentally, since it represented political and religious schism. The high moments of faith and trust in the lives of kings like Rehoboam, Asa and Jehoshaphat, which are not recorded in 1 and 2 Kings reflect this interest of the historian who may well have been Ezra himself. The narrative continues until the fall of Babylon and the release from captivity by Cyrus of Persia.
This book relates how the first group of 42, Jews migrated from Babylonia to Palestine b. Pressure from hostile neighboring states hindered further work on the Temple until Haggai and Zechariah stirred up the people to complete the sanctuary even without a building permit b. He persuaded them to obey the Torah by separating themselves from their pagan wives and to abandon the permissive attitude toward paganism, which then prevailed.