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  3. Linguistic discrimination

What do you call it? With apartheid, there was also sexism. At the same time, she does not hesitate to look critically at the Southern African tradition, in which she takes great pride, whenever it promotes gender inequality. In African culture they just think that men are only there to work and provide for the family. They don't clean, they leave their beds undone, they just don't do anything. When they come at home they want to get tea on a tray. They think that men can only bring money home, bring food home only, and that's that.

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I hate this. I don't like it because I believe in gender equality and I think they should also take part in a home and wash dishes.

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If I can wash dishes, a boy can do the same. If I can clean the whole house, the boy can do the same. I can't cook. It's not because I am adapting [to white culture] but because I have a mother and a sister who always cooked for me. People tell me that white people don't cook because they have maids.

And I say, you people have to do your own things. We have to help each other in a marriage. In one of the most compelling moments of my interviews, she explained to me how her exposure to these different perspectives allowed her to challenge her father's abusive behavior and her mother and grandmother's acceptance of it in the name of cultural norms.

My mother had been in this abusive relationship for so long, until my father disappeared. And every time, it used to be so bad. My father was an alcoholic, and he would drink and abuse us. In the end, it got so bad that he even hit us. He broke everything he could get his hands on in the house.


He paid lobola and everything. This is not right. This is because I was getting an education. We would learn stuff about rape and abuse at school. I had two perspectives. I knew that what was happening was not right, but I knew the way my grandmother was raised. For April, English played an essential role in gaining a new perspective on her family situation, as it is language that allowed her to talk to the counselors who helped her see beyond those traditional cultural norms that promote gender inequality: We were always having these counselors, people from different organizations coming in my school to talk with us.

So I understood and tried to keep in contact with them, and asked them. I used to go to these workshops, whenever we had workshops. I would go and try to empower myself, even though it wasn't something that I communicated with people. Whatever situation I was in, I knew that there were things I could do. I would try to talk to my mom and to my aunts, and then I would start healing, and it would help me very much. She didn't seem to think so because according to her, Zulus are reluctant to discuss delicate issues that are considered taboo: I think it's the way Zulus are.

My mother didn't sit me down to tell me that I am going to have my period. They wouldn't go into details and tell you why, because you are having your periods.

Linguistic discrimination

So you end up doing the wrong things when you do have a boyfriend, because you have boys asking you out. Responses to the questionnaire indicate that learners, regardless of their gender, are more likely to use English as an additional language to communicate with their mother than with their father; female students are more likely than male students to use English with both their father and their mother. Female students are also more likely to see English as one of their own languages.

The Education System of South Africa

Interestingly, this sense of security comes from a conception of subjectivity that is evocative of the postmodern feminist theoretical framework discussed earlier in this paper. Male respondents, on the other hand, seem more likely to construe the relationship between language and identity in terms of the birthright paradigm. For example, one woman in the sample used alternative ways of thinking she accessed through English to challenge traditional gender roles between husbands and wives; another woman used alternative discourses to stand up to domestic violence.

The findings of this study cannot be generalized, given that they are based on a small sample of respondents that is by no means representative of the Zulu nation, let alone South Africa's black population. Reducing linguistic inequality is vital for countries such as South Africa, where a myriad of languages and dialects are spoken on a daily basis, but where one dominant language with restricted access excludes the majority of the population from their fair share of symbolic and material resources.

A greater use of indigenous African languages in education, business, and politics would make it much easier for the majority of the population to get those skills that are needed to move from the lower deck to the upper deck and to fuel the growth of South Africa's economy. Hence, the ownership of this language must not be conceived of as the exclusive prerogative of those who inherit it from birth, but as a national resource that ought to be made accessible to all of the population within the framework of additive bilingualism mandated by the constitution. South Africa has the highest rate of recorded rape incidence in the world Ramphele : It would not be unfair to say that in this context, giving access to a language that helps people question things is particularly important for women.

This is not to say that the mastery of English ought to be a precondition for questioning gender roles and saying no to domestic violence. Women can and should be empowered to stand up for their rights using any linguistic resource that is available to them. Volume 36 , Issue 1. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.

If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. World Englishes. Paper Free Access. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. These can be special monuments, like a building, sculpture, painting, a cave dwelling or anything important because of its history, artistic or scientific value.

The area in which this can become problematic is when a part of somebody's cultural heritage seems to clash directly with the dignity of another person's, or where it appears to transgress established global human rights practices as set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. An example might be the practice of female genital mutilation or the display of monuments that celebrate the lives of people who were responsible for the deaths of vast numbers of people, such as Cecil John Rhodes.

A constitution is the guiding law on a country's values and rules. A constitution directs the government and all the people who live in a country on the rules for how citizens should be treated and how they should treat others. A constitution supports and protects a country and the heritage and culture of its peoples.


South Africa is widely considered to have one of the fairest and most progressive constitutions in the world. In South Africa the vision of the constitution is for everybody to be equal. This means that nobody should be permitted to discriminate against anyone else because of things like skin colour, age, religion, language or gender. South Africans have human rights that are protected. For example, some schools have turned away children who have AIDS.

In the same way the right to practice different religious beliefs is protected. Every person has the right to be part of any religion and to use the language of their choice. For this reason South Africa has 11 official languages so that all the major languages used in the country are given recognition. Languages used by smaller groups such as the Khoi, Nama, San and sign language must also be respected under the constitution.

There are two types of World Heritage Sites: the first represents cultural and the second natural heritage. Cultural heritage sites have to show a masterpiece of human creativity or an important exchange of human values over a long period of time. This exchange must be seen in architecture or technology, the planning of the town or city and the design of the landscape.

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  • It has to show evidence of a tradition or civilisation that has disappeared or is still alive. It can also be a very good example of a type of building, group of buildings, and use of technology or reflect important stages in human history. A place where humans settled and used the land in a way that represents their culture can also be a cultural heritage site, especially if the area is affected by change that cannot be reversed. The authenticity and the way the site is protected and managed are also important factors.

    They can be in fossils, rocks or other geological features. If an area contains rare natural formations, like unique rock shapes, or is very beautiful, or has habitats and species of animals and plants that can only exist there, it becomes important to protect it. There are challenges in closing schools but post provisioning cannot be looked at outside of rationalisation and the redeployment of teachers.

    It is acknowledged that DBE receives a large portion of the national budget, but there are always funding constraints.